Clarification of Axes and Fig

Can I get some clarification on when to use plt. and when do we use ax.set_?

I am also unsure as to what exactly does ax, fig = plt.subplots() mean.

From off the top of my head, plt (a named representation of matplot.pyplot) allows you to create plots in python
So it is common to run
import matplotlib.pyplot as plt

plot.subplots allows you create a figure and set of subplots, and you can arrange each whichever way you want in the figure

I also presume you’re asking for the difference between plt.xxx() (for example) and ax.set_xxx()
The ax methods are object oriented setter methods that were later developed by matplotlib (the plt.xxx() are older versions of the same thing) - https://matplotlib.org/3.2.1/tutorials/introductory/lifecycle.html should explain some more

When you run fig, ax = plt.subpolots() you are instantiating two objects. The figure object and the axes object.

A Figure object is the outermost container for a matplotlib graphic, which can contain multiple Axes objects. It works like this:

So every time you use a method on the ax object, like ax.set_title() you are performing an action on the axes object inside the figure object. You can create as many axes inside a figure as you want using the nrows and ncols on plt.subplots()

You can read more about on the article below (from where I took some resources to answer your question) and from the official documentation.

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I think the diagram makes it easier to understand. Thanks! Will check out the link to get a better picture.

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