Data Science problems by Industry

Maybe I’m not searching Google hard enough, but to my knowledge there is no article that lists the industries where data science is applied along with typical projects/problems. Therefore, I want to start a thread here where we can collect information on the types of problems data science solves by industry.

Please post 1 or more industries along with a comprehensive list of problems that data science solves for said industry.

Kaggle is a good place to look. There are a lot of competitions, old or new and the old ones have the winning solution.