Stuck in Rank function in Data analyst in R course

Hi there,

I am stuck in “Scoring and Ranking Universities” chapter in data analytics in R course. So, I did not understand the concept used in the example here as we used Rank() function to calculate the rankings for each university as per their categories. here is the example below:

**world_rank_rank <- rank(university_matrix[,“world_rank”])
quality_of_education_rank <- rank(university_matrix[,“quality_of_education”])
influence_rank <- rank(university_matrix[,“influence”])
broad_impact_rank <- rank(university_matrix[,"broad_im

Now, in the example above, we used rank() function for rankings for universities but how come these variables has became vectors because as I understood so far is vectors can be created using concatenate function c() but here we declared them as vectors without using c()

Also, My second confusion is that after using rbind(), how previous rows like harvard, oxford, stanford,columbia,MIT, cambridge have become columns in the diagram.

So these are the two major confusions I am going through, please help me so that I will proceed further in my course without any doubt.

Course link: https://app.dataquest.io/m/503/matrices-in-r/10/scoring-and-ranking-universities

Thanks,
Nishant