What is the difference between SQL KEYWORD, CLAUSE, and STATEMENT?

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STATEMENT
In a simple language, an SQL statement is a complete piece of code that will either make changes to the database or returns a result.

SELECT * FROM <tablename>;

CLAUSE
Clauses are meaningful parts of an SQL statement. For example:

SELECT *
FROM <tablename>

are two clauses.

KEYWORD
Keywords are reserved words that are used to perform various operations in the database. In the above case, SELECT and FROM are keywords.